• Write Raspbian Image on microSD memory.
  • Boot with fresh Raspbian
  • Login with pi / raspberry (default ID/password)
  • Run sudo raspi-config to setup initial configuration.

Set configuration with following menu.

  • 1. Change User Password - Change password for user pi.
  • 2. Hostname - Default value is raspberrypi, name what you want.
  • 3. Boot Options - Select console mode (command line) or Graphic mode (desktop)
  • 4. Localisation Options
    • T1 Change Locale - Default value is en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8, recommendation is setting both en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 and ko_KR.UTF-8 UTF-8.
    • T2 Change Timezone - Where Raspberry Pi lives.
    • T3 Change Wi-fi Country - What you want. Frequency ranges are different depending on country.
  • 5. Interfacing Options
    • Others - Check ENABLE/DISABLE for your purposes.
  • 7. Advanced Options
    • A1 Expand Filesystem - MUST DO to extend your memory capacity to utilize
    • A3 Memory Split - Memory size for GPU. If you are console user, 32is rather optimal value.
  • Change root password - sudo passwd root
  • Add user for yourself - sudo adduser userid
  • Add sudoer privilege for userid
  # User privilege specification
  root    ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
  userid   ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
  • copy all files from /home/pi/ to /home/userid (e.g.: .profile .bashrc)
  • Logout pi user and login with userid
  • Delete pi user without regret sudo deluser pi and delete user directory sudo rm -rf /home/pi
  • Update & upgrade
  sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade -y && sudo apt-get autoremove

or enjoy every single step

  sudo apt-get update      
  sudo apt-get dist-upgrade -y 
  sudo apt-get autoremove 

Update firmware updater

  sudo rpi-update 

  • Check wireless & configuration sudo iwconfig to find wireless is available.
  • Change proper configuration with editing /etc/network/interfaces

Since Stretch, /etc/network/interfaces is not useless unless stop dhcpcd service. Use /etc/dhcpcd.conf instead.

# Do not use in Stretch 
  allow-hotplug wlan0
  iface wlan0 inet static
    address 192.168.abc.xyz
    gateway 192.168.abc.1
    wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

Edit /etc/dhcpcd.conf for static IP address

# Here is an example which configures a static address, routes and dns.
# define static profile
profile static_eth0
static ip_address=
static routers=
static domain_name_servers=
# fallback to static profile on eth0
interface eth0
fallback static_eth0

This configuration is static (fixed) IP with assigned DNS servers. fallback option is possible to configure a static profile within dhcpcd and fall back to it when DHCP lease fails.

  • Edit /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
  ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
  • Gear wireless up
  sudo ip link set wlan0 down
  sudo ip link set wlan0 up

Check attached devices using sudo blkid

format with ext4

  sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdXY 

mount ntfs

Even thought NTFS has little advantage in format, it has great advantage on compatibility.

  sudo apt-get install ntfs-3g

formatting with NTFS

  mkfs.ntfs -Q -L diskLabel /dev/sdXY

mount and booting option

 sudo vi /etc/fstab

Add line with device's UUID, which prevents failing mount due to point of devices.

UUID="dd7c1879-68c5-e9b9-bad6-789d3b8db984"  /(path)/Storage   ext4    defaults          0       0

Use either systemd-timesyncd or ntp service. If you wish to use ntp

  apt-get install ntp 
  systemctl stop systemd-timesyncd
  systemctl disable systemd-timesyncd
​  (sudo) /etc/init.d/ntp stop
​  (sudo) /etc/init.d/ntp start

Edit /etc/ntp.conf and append the following near server part.

server time1.google.com iburst
server time2.google.com iburst
server time3.google.com iburst
server time4.google.com iburst

restart NTP daemon

sudo service ntp reload

rsync is useful command to transfer data from source to destination.

  rsync -av --ignore-existing --remove-source-files /.. /source_directory/ TARGET.DOMAINS:/.. /destination_direcotry/ && \
  find /../source_directory/ -depth -type d -empty -delete;

–remove-source-files sender removes synchronized files (non-dirs)

–ignore-existing skip updating files that already exist on receiver

After running rsync command, find command runs to find and delete empty directories.

This problem has something to do with slow connection or connection failure due to bad network situation.

sudo vi /etc/apt/source.lists 

Remove downloaded repository information from the /var/lib/apt/lists/ directory.

sudo rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*

Change mirror address seemingly to be fast.

Raspbian Mirrors

This is a kind of temporary problem due to network condition.

Upgrade video guide Upgrade Guide

  sudo apt-get update 
  sudo apt-get upgrade 
  sudo apt-get dist-upgrade 

Check for any system inconsistencies. Perform database sanity and consistency checks for partially installed, missing and obsolete packages

  sudo dpkg -C

If no issues are reported, check what packages are held back.

  sudo apt-mark showhold

Packages showing On Hold will not upgrade.
Replace Jessie to Stretch in distribution sources.

  sudo sed -i 's/jessie/stretch/g' /etc/apt/sources.list

And update & upgrade with stretch sources. Reboot & check distribution information.

  lsb_release -a

Preparing upgrade with keeping up latest

sudo apt update 
sudo apt dist-upgrade -y 

Update Raspberry Pi's firmware,

sudo rpi-update 

After rebooting, modify source list with buster Edit /etc/apt/source.list

deb http://raspbian.raspberrypi.org/raspbian/ buster main contrib non-free rpi

Edit /etc/apt/sources.list.d/raspi.list

deb http://archive.raspberrypi.org/debian/ buster main

To optimize upgrading process, remove apt-listchanges package

sudo apt-get remove apt-listchanges

Run update and upgrade for buster and it takes a long time.

sudo apt update
sudo apt dist-upgrade

Optional remove (or possible these are supposed to be removed) the followings

sudo apt purge timidity lxmusic gnome-disk-utility deluge-gtk evince wicd wicd-gtk clipit usermode gucharmap gnome-system-tools pavucontrol

Clean and purge repository for update and reboot finally.

sudo apt autoremove -y
sudo apt autoclean
sudo reboot 

edit or append /etc/update-motd.d/xx-command, where xx is arbitrary number to set priorities.

For example touch /etc/update-motd.d/20-disk with the following,

printf "\n"
df -h /dev/sd* --out=target,fstype --output=size,used,avail,pcent --type=ext4
printf "\n"

shows size of disk, used and available capacities of ext4 format disk(es).

Mounted on             Type  Size  Used Avail Use%
/home/userid/disk1     ext4  917G  338G  533G  39%
/home/userid/disk2     ext4  458G  307G  128G  71% 

  • rpi_common
  • Last modified: 2020/03/22 03:54
  • by Júne Park